Every nation wants development in various facets of her national life. However, there are various factors that work against such drive. This paper engaged issues that serve as tinges of the roles of cultural identity and social cohesion in Nigeria’s National development. With over 250 ethnic groups and their unique cultures, there is more of diversity than one identity as a nation. The calls for restructuring, rotation of the seat of power and agitation for secession further drive home the point that Nigeria is more divided than united. In other words, diversity in culture has in no small measure worked against social cohesion which is very instrumental in National development. It is against this background that this paper sought to provide direction towards national development by emphasising the common culture and practices that binds us as Nigerians and at the same time serve as adhesives towards social cohesion. Adequate theories were reviewed and adapted to the subject matter. This paper is of the view that National development in Nigeria is possible only when each person is made to have a common identity through the principles of fairness, justice, equality and moral uprightness.